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  • ISBN: 978-2-8124-0083-4
  • ISSN: 1965-2542
  • DOI: 10.15122/isbn.978-2-8124-4228-5.p.0243
  • Éditeur: Classiques Garnier
  • Date de parution: 01/03/2010
  • Périodicité: Annuelle
  • Langue: Anglais
Accès libre
Support: Numérique

1. Borrowing as a linguistic event

Christine Jacquet-Pfau, Jean-François Sablayrolles  : Loanwords  : from
identification to analysis. Different aime and treatment

Two complementary ways of looking at linguistic borrowing are
presented here with the aim of illustrating the complexity of this concept. The
complexity of the concept of linguistic borrowing leads to misconceptions,
which can however be clarified, by taking roto accourt differing aims or points
of view leading to different practices. Jean-François Sablayrolles concentrates
on the process itself. Borrowing is traditionally defined as one of the three main
types of neology, but the distinction between these three classes proues
problematical in the practical task of extracting neologisms from texts and
assigning them to the appropriate category. Some solutions are proposed.
Christine Jacquet-Pfau, going beyond the question of process, aims at
pinpointing certain formai properties in written sources which indicate words of
foreign origin, rot integrated roto the system of the borrowing language. These
markers can be used at different stages and in different applications of automatic
analysis of language : retrieving information, indexing, identifying text types
(specialised texts in particular), subject fields dealt with, and language used,
especially for translation.

Sonia Branca-Rosoff, Sandrine Reboul-Touré  : A discursive or a linguistic
event  ? Loanwords and terme in the vocabulary of the Internet

Lexical borrowing is a social process, and to accourt for it, it is necessary
to underline the importance of human activities in language change. In analysing
the French vocabulary of the Internet, this article takes as a starting point the
broadly-based concept of the "event", thereby shedding light on the social
dynamics linked to borrowing. It investigates the concept of the linguistic event,
which can be applied to the neological reaction leading to the conscious creation
of new terms by French terminologists. This approach brings together the
coining of new words and the conscious efforts of those involved, using lexical
semantics and discourse analysis. As a conclusion, however, the article leaves
the question open as to whether there is a clear distinction to be made between a
linguistic and a discursive event.

John Humbley  :The loanword dictionary  :descriptive and prospective

The Dictionary of European Anglicisme, first published in 2001, presents
some 1,500 words borrowed from English in twelve European languages. In
analysing the various entries, and in comparing the different languages, it is

244 sometimes possible to pinpoint the linguistic "event" which triggers the
loanword. In addition, some languages appear more open to anglicisms than
others, thereby announcing the influences which later turn up in the more
conservatively-inclined language communities. The resources which can be
called upon to shed light on this — dictionaries, supplements, databases, are
given a brief assessment.

Olivier Bertrand Borrowings by Nicole Oresme, or how to translate
Aristotle's Ethics and Politics roto 14~ century French

14~` century France saw the flowering of translations of the great political
texts of Greece and Rome, and the translators, in their work, contributed to the
creation of a new vocabulary of politics. Raoul de Presles made the first
translation roto French of the City of God, and Nicole Oresme addressed the
works of Aristotle, Ethics and Politics in particular. Borrowing proved to be one
of the main means by which translators introduced new concepts roto a
vocabulary hitherto dominated by religion. Indeed, as political science emerged,
borrowing became an essential resource for coining new words. In this article, a
particular case is examined in the tables and glossaries of Nicole Oresme's
works : that of the word démocratie.

Chantal Wionet  :how languages figure in Thomas Corneille's Dictionnaire


This article reviews the role of foreign languages in the second volume of
the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française (1694), known alter Thomas
Corneille, who compiled it. This survey has two aims : the metalexicographical
analysis on one hand, ascertaining the quantity and diversity of loanwords in the
nomenclature, and the analysis of how loanwords were perceived in the 17~`
century from the particular point of view of the institution. To do this, the
various formulations of the articles on words considered to be bans from
various languages are studied and elements which shed light on how these
words were perceived in French are highlighted.

Jacques Guilhaumou From Saussure to Sieyès analytical views on

This articles draws on Saussure's ideas on language as an institution and
Sieyès's order of language, with the view to situating linguistic borrowing in the
context suggested by the latter's view of the linguistic "event". It focuses on the
interpretation of the use made of the expression concinnité des moeurs in
Sieyès' manuscripts. Saussurian language dynamics, which are made material
through the institution of language, are associated with the ordering of social
relations and the combination of social art foret expressed by a formula
considered as a borrowing  :concinnité des moeurs. The event takes foret in
language, tending towards the ideal of a well organised society.

245 Danielle Bouverot, Agnès Steuckardt  : Using the Online Trésor de la langue
,française to analyse borrowings from Russian

Words borrowed from Russian roto French are bound up in a relationship
situated in some point in time between French speakers and the Russian
language. The article gives a chronological inventory of Russian loanwords,
classified by their first appearance as testified by the Trésor de la langue
française, featuring accounts of travellers and geographers. Then 19~` century
Russian literature appears as the principle purveyors of lexical transfers, such as
the ethnonyms tchérémisse, tcherkesse, or narre of realia such as kakochnik,
naga'ika.... A similar inventory drawn up from the Petit Robert shows the role of
the press in the 20~` century, with the transfer of specific narres used in the
Soviet system, such as goulag, nomenklatura, then glasnost, perestroika. The
French speaker seems to keep these Russian loanwords at arm's length, as if the
Russian universe of reference remains somehow irreversibly foreign.

Snejana Gadjeva  :The dynamics of borrowing  : turldsms in Bulgarian

As a general ride loanwords are not used in the target language in the
saure way as in the source language, but instead, are adapted to its system. The
nature of this adaptation can vary from one language to another and from one
period of time to another. In this study we propose to demonstrate the dynamic
character of the use of loanwords, taking the example of turkisms in Bulgarian.
We raise several questions in order to refine the comprehension of the
phenomenon of borrowing. Do loanwords have a stable place in the target
language  ? What are the linguistic factors that promote or discourage their
integration  ?Are there historical contexts in which their use is prohibited or
advocated  ? Do they have different connotations compared to the native words
and if so, then for what reasons  ? We first make a few remarks on the
development of the linguistic transformations that determine the acceptance of
the turkisms in the system of the Bulgarian language. Then we look at the
various fonctions of these loanwords in order to describe the changes of usage
that has occurred. On these two points we conduct our analysis on a diachronic
axis of the overall development of the Bulgarian language.

Jean-Marc Sarale  :The lexicalisation process of some loanwords from

The article examines the question of the integration/lexicalisation of
loanwords, based on a French language corpus of discursive occurrences of
loanwords from Japanese (karaoke, tsunami, zen). Four issues are discussed

- the stabilisation of the written form of the loanword after interaction

between phonetic, graphic and epilinguistic representations of the

Japanese words ;

- the act of naming, without really knowing the meaning of the borrowed
terra, i.e. naming an exogenous cultural entity, an act which can be
dated and analysed ;

246 - the incorporation of facets representing the cultural ethnotype "Japan"
roto a programme of meaning, where they poiit semantic values which
differ from the reference ;

- correlations between the restrictions of the loanword and ils semantic
plasticity —some syntactic fonctions promote movement of subduction
of ils lexical malter.

2. Miscellaneous

Jean-Claude Boulanger  : A reasoned bibliography of neology, preceeded by
some miscelaneous thoughts

Institutional research carried out in new word studies since 1970 led to
the publication of bibliographies of research on neology. It is shown how these
compilations first emerged in the field of lexicography to be taken up in
language planning and terminology. The article also includes an examination of
the relationship between neology and lime. The meaning of the marker
"neologism" merits some thought. Two interpretations are possible : either the
marker refers to the date when a new word appears and is consigned to the
historical part of the dictionary article, or it refers to the perception of the
novelty of a lexical unit. The feeling that a word is new only lests for a relatively
short lime and varies from one word to another. Neology in this sense is a
temporary quality, which means that from a logical point of view the nature of
neology is quality-based — an accidentel value, and not on quiddity, an essentiel

Rosa Estopà Recording new words in Spanish and Catalan over two
decades  : Observatori de Neologia de l'IULA

The Observatori de Neologia was created by Maria Teresa Cabré in 1989.
Ils task is to collect and analyse new words in Spanish and Catalan disseminated
by mainstream media. The articles describes how the corpora is analysed and the
methods used have evolved over the years, from the linguistic viewpoint
(exclusion corpus, means of systematic coverage), and the material viewpoint
(storage systems, automatic detection of new words, etc.). The article proper
concludes on the reasons which prompted this enterprise, which go well beyond
the scope of language planning. The annexes present the members of the team
and a comprehensive list of the publications on neology issued since 1995, and
the resources developed and made available on the Observatori website.