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  • ISBN: 978-2-8124-1261-5
  • ISSN: 2262-0354
  • DOI: 10.15122/isbn.978-2-8124-1261-5.p.0225
  • Éditeur: Classiques Garnier
  • Mise en ligne: 17/07/2013
  • Périodicité: Annuelle
  • Langue: Anglais
Accès libre
Support: Numérique

Joëlle Ducos : Neology and Mediaeval studies : the genesis of French for
specific purposes

Neology car be seen as a major phenomenon during the Middle Ages, alongside the
use of Latin and pre-hurnanism. But to study this requires a broader chronology than usual,
i.e. as fibm the first attestations, taking roto accourt a great variety of procedures and usages.
Medieval terminology emerges as a complex entity of innovation where all the possibilities
of linguistic creation are used. Progression is far from linear : ternis appear, disappear or
remaln without any clearly perceptible causes, posing the question of a model which could
explain how ternis are formed, how they emerge and how they are disseminated.

Keywords : neology, terminology, science, Middle Ages

David Trotter : Ephemeral neologisms : how science and words have evolved

This paper examines the durability of neologisms in medieval French and beyond,
concentrating in particular on words derived from Arabic and transmitted through Latin
translations. An examination of the Old French Chirurgie d'Albucasis suggests that a high
proportion of the technical ternis fibm Arabic are attested only in that translation. Three of the
Latin manuscripts ofAlbucasis contain proto-glossaries, probably a principal means by which
technical loanwords could be transmitted; but these, in fact, are by no means exclusively
glossaries to the text, but rather wider-ranging synonyma. A part of one of the manuscripts
(British Library, MS. Additional 36617) is transcribed to make the point. The study also looks
at the medical Arabicisms still present in the TLF, and those listed in vol. XIX of the FEW,
and finds that there are very few. The conclusion is that the existence of (in this case) Arabic
loanwords in an Old French translation does rot mean that any lasting impact has been made
on the lexis of French. Most of the words in the Albucasis translation have disappeared.

Keywords : neologism, surgery, glossary, Arabic

Michèle Goyens : What becomes of neologisms in mediaeval scientific French :
a question of morphology ?

This article discusses a series of criteria that car be used to formulate research
hypotheses regarding the lexicalization or the disappearance of neologisms created during
the Middle Ages. In concrete, a previous analysis of neologisms used in certain translations
of medical texts have revealed the large majority of borrowings from Latin, next to
formations in the vernacular French language, like derivatives. Moreover, borrowings
from Latin seem to lexicalize more easily. In this contribution, we would like to explore in

Neologica, 7, 2013, p. 225-227

226 particular the possible influence of morphological characteristics of the neologism on its
lexicalization in the language. We pay special attention to criteria emphasized for Modern
French by psycholinguistic studies, in order to discuss the way in which they tan be applied
to a corpus of medieval neologisms.

Keywords : neology, morphology, "diagrammaticity"

Jean-Patrice Boudet and Matthieu Husson : The vocabulary of astronomy in
Old French : the case of the tables and canons of circa 1271

MS Bernkastel-Cues 215 contains an unedited set of astronomical tables and
canons in French. Probably written around 1271 these are a new and unique opportunity to
deepen our knowledge of the astronomical terminology in old French. The present study
establishes, from this material, a glossary of 130 ternis and proposes a first internal and
contextual analysis of it on the semantical, dialectal and morphological levels.

Keywords : Astronomy, table, terminology, old French

Yela 5chauwecker : The science of the stars in the court of Charles V : how tan
neologisms be identified in an Old French text ?

If the notion of neologism is already difficult to define in the case of a modern
language, it proues to be even more difficult when it tomes to historical languages, such as
Old French. Since on the one band, we lack the data to distinguish spontaneous formations
and hapaxes fibm creations which made their way from the level of speech (parole) to that of
language (langue), all rare words or unique attestations are potentially unusual usages, thus
potential neologisms. On the other band however, it is not at all easy to identify neologisms
in an Old French text, e.g. the astronomical and astrologcal texts written and translated
on behalf of Charles V in the later 1360s. Even many of the usages marked by authors or
scribes explicitly as estrange, i.e. "unusual" and "new," turn out to be not French derivations
from Latin mots, but Latin words forged together with French endings on a relatively fixed
pattern (F. Duval, 2011, 508). Determining neologisms on grounds of dictionaries of the
Ancient French language does not work either, because, especially when it tomes to scientific
writings, only a very small percentage of the avallable material had fund its way roto the
dictionaries so far, and, what is more, supposed neologisms mostly turn out to be French
adaptations of ternis deeply rooted in the European discursive tradition. Thus, the only method
that seems to yield reliable results is to consider the "social aspect" of the neologism—not
in its original sense that lexical homogeneity for a given concept helps distinguish hapaxes
fibm well-established lexical creations, but the other way round, Since lexical variety seems to
enable us to identify concepts for which a satisfying equivalent in Old French bas not yet been
fund. In addition, analyses made of a choke of ternis from the corpus seem to indicate that
more neologisms tend to be fund among astronomical ternis than among astrological ternis.

Keywords : neologism, astronomy, astrology, terminology, translation

Xavier-Laurent Salvador : 5emantic neologies and adaptations in the
encyclopaedic discourse in the Bible Historiale

This article presents a problem of medieval French traductology applied to Bible
translations from Latin to the vernacular. The French translator tries to avoid the loss of

227 information due to the supposed weakness of vernacular idioms, and hits on the idea of
proving his fidelity to the original sacred text. The comparison between Latin and vernacular
shows (1) alteration of the original dictuxn close to semantic neology; (2) new senses of
imported means from the classical languages; (3) rewriting of the original text revealing
the gap existing between the horizon of expectations of the ancient text and its translation.

Keywords : neologism, translation, Bible, terminology

Ma Caterina Manes Gallo and Henri Portine : The phrases prendre effet or
prendre fin : a fieed expression or neologism ?

The purpose of this paper is to show that the neologization process depends on
discourse strategies closely related to social activities in a specific domain (here, the domaln
of Law). It is centered on French prendre effet and prendre fzn. The authors show how
prendre effet is not only a set expression but also a neologism, in opposition to prendre fzn.
The analysis is partly based on Guillauxne's notion of "subduction".

Keywords : neologization, discourse, semantic, subduction, law

Catherine Resche : Anthroponyms in economics : another way roto specialised
fields and their culture

This paper ralses the question of anthroponyms as ternis, underlining their usefiilness
as neonyms. It insists that, in the field of research roto specialised fields, such as economics,
anthroponyms represent an entry point not only roto the concepts they denote, but also
roto the history of economic thinking and roto the culture of the domain and its specialists.
Based on a corpus of 418 such ternis, the analysis first focuses on their components, and
then reviews their limits as well as the advantages that can be derived from observing them,
especially for a linguist. As mirrors of the themes and ideas that have marked the discipline
over time, they offer a rich source of inquiry.

Keywords : anthroponyms, the history of economic thinking, culture, limits, advantages

Sylvie Vandaele : From the neologism to the field of knowledge : the case of
Life Sciences

In recent years, a plethora of new ternis designating various subfields of the life
sciences and biomedicine have emerged. These new ternis, which are listed in thesauri
for the purpose of scientific article indexing, play an essential role in the partitioning of
academic disciplines and thus provoke a reorganization of the body of knowledge. However,
they are the result of a dynamic interplay between several factors : for sure, those of a
scientific nature, but also social, political, and human factors. We performed a comparative
analysis, between English and French, of sonie Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This
was dope in order to recapitulate the sequence of events of their genesis and identify those
which could explaln certain peculiarities of the English and French arborescences, the latter
being the French translation of the former. This diachronic study therefore focuses on the
process of neology formation; neologisms may become canonical within a given field, often
through a symbolic action by a researcher.

Keywords : diachrony, life sciences, biomedicine, naming, field of knowledge, genetics,
molecular biology, genomics

Article de revue: Précédent 15/15