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  • Type de publication: Article de revue
  • Revue: Neologica
    2009, n° 3
    . Revue internationale de néologie
  • Pages: 219 à 223
  • ISBN: 978-2-8124-0084-1
  • ISSN: 1965-2542
  • DOI: 10.15122/isbn.978-2-8124-4229-2.p.0223
  • Éditeur: Classiques Garnier
  • Collection / Revue: Neologica, n° 3
  • Date de parution: 01/11/2009
  • Première édition: 2009
  • Langue: Anglais

  • Article de revue: Précédent 16/16
Accès libre
Support: Numérique

Salah Mejri : Neology and automatic language processing

First the traditional way of looking at neologisms is sketched out, involving
in particular the narrow opposition made between neologisms of form and neolo-
gisms of meaning, the posited difference between neology and lexical innovation,
creativity, the continuum between general language and specialised discourse,
and problems of dating the first appearance. T'hen the three main fonctions of a
lexical unit are presented in the framework of object classes : predicate, argument,
actualizer. Thought is then given to the levels of linguistic analysis and to the
problem of the word, with the existence of polylexical units, which may consti-
tute a third articulation of language. Neologisms are identified first by consulting
reference dictionaries as an exclusion corpus to which various filters must be ad-
ded. There are three main hurdles in identifying semantic neology : polysemy,
set phrases and inference. Examples are given with descriptions in inension and
extension, and the tools developed by the Laboratoire Lexiques, Dictionnaires,
Informatique are also presented, showing how the theoretical approach to neology
has been renewed, and indicating some of the practical results.

Jean-François Sablayrolles :Neologisms and object classes

T'he conventional approaches to neology have largely been replaced by a
more global and scalar view, as put forward in La néologie en français contem-
porain (Sablayrolles, 2000). In this view, neology is seen as one particular aspect
of the way language works and can be described. It can be demonstrated that it
is rot so much the concept of neology itself which can be called into question
as the inadequacy of the linguistic and more particularly the lexicological des-
criptions which have been used as a basis for the identification and extraction
of neologisms. To remedy this, the theory of object classes, developed by the
LaboratoireLexiques, Dictionnaires, Informatique, seems apromising framework
which can be used to overcome these insufficiencies. It provides perspectives
which accourt for the phenomenon itself, objective criteria by which newness

can be measured and tools for neological intelligence and the analysis of data
obtained automatically.

Soundous Ben Hariz Ouenniche : Enhancing the reliability of
subjective identification of neologisms

The experiment reported here aims at identifying the reasons for differing
decisions in identifying and analysing neologisms in a finite press corpus in view
to improving reliability. It follows on from two previous experiments carried out
in differing conditions and with divergent aims. The participants first manually
extracted neologisms from a corpus of French press articles. They then discussed
and corrected their initial findings. Alter this, they submitted a list of neologisms
extracted and indicated to which matrix each neologism could be attributed. T'he
proportion of agreement among the participants on the neologisms extracted was
then counted on a scale ranging from complete agreement to none at all. A second
tally was made of the matrix behind the new word. It appeared that certain parti-
cipants favoured certain matrices over others, and a rating of matrices in relation
to the proportion of agreement or disagreement they attracted was also calculated.
This analysis shed light on a nurnber of theoretical points and formed the basis for
a more harmonised approach. The main conclusions have been incorporated into
a set of guidelines used internally and to be reported on in future conferences.

Jean Pruvost : What does the indication "néol." mean in a dictionary of
synonyms and analogy published at the end of the twentieth century?
Lexicographical or dictionaric neology.

When R. Boissinot's Dictionnaire de synonymes, d'analogies et
d'antonymes, first published in 1973, came to be re-edited, the status of words
originally marked "néol" had to be re-examined. There were 169 in all, 35 also
qualified as bans, and 15 others with some other remark (register, subject field,
and in one instance, grammatical category). It turned out that bans and other such
categories were not classified systematically, and that many words that had no
remark attached could also have been annotated in this way. Moreover, several
words were qualified as "néol", whereas they had akeady been in use for some
time and were quite widely known. By marking "néol", the lexicographer seems
in fact to be warning the reader that a particular word might be rejected by purists.
The remark however does allow us to evaluate the lexicographer's neological
sense, since he notes as such words which had corne into the language since the
second world war, or those which may be older but only widely adopted later.
Studying words which are commented on in this way and the actual comments
made both in the preface and in the body of the dictionary provides a valid topic

for metalexicography. This is the case of such remarks that are made in Littré
(1878) about the change in gender of cyclone, and, more recently, of the way TGV
("very fast train") in contrast with train bleu, are commented on in contemporary
dictionaries. It is up to the linguist to reflect on how new a word is, how long it
may be used and sometimes how it begins to disappear.

Michel Arrivé : A neologism in the public eye :the case of bravitude

T'he French neologism bravitude is one of those whose first occurrence can
be most precisely determined; it was first used by Ségolène Royal on 6~ January
2007 during a visit to the Great Wall of China. The article first investigates the
relations between this bravitude and its homonym previously used in an Internet
video game, and then tackles the following questions

L How can the creation of the neologism be explained? Why did Ségolène Royal
opt to use the neological suffix -itude when she could have used rot only bravour
but also the less common braverie and braveté?This is likely to be subconscious
morphological reasoning but none less real.

2. What can accourt for the large number of comments made on this neologism and
the violently negative character of most of them? Many critics use "neologism"
as an equivalent of barbarism or faulty language usage, and the implications of
this are considered. It would seem that language is often imagined as a closed
inventory of changeless items.

3. The reception given to bravitude is contrasted to that which the neologisms
courtesse d'idées, fatitude and héritation, made by male politicians. Can the
difference in reception be attributed to the gender of the speaker?

Finally, the possible effect of the neologism on the productivity of the
suffix -itude is discussed.

Esme Winter-Froemel : Linguistic borrowing :theoretical challenges

In spite of a considerable volume of research on linguistic borrowing (or
bans), there remains a whole series of major theoretical issues without solution.
Starting from the controversies over lexical creation and pseudoloans, it will be
suggested that the only solution implies that the definition of what a borrowing
or a loan is needs to be reappraised and the concept delimited in relation to two
connected fields of research :innovations brought about by language contact and
non-native formai markers within the language system. The theoretical and metho-
dological principles of these three fields will then be discussed, notably i) the
definition of the various categories of borrowing; ü) the global context of lexical
change ;iii) the underlying semantic and semiotic basis of any model of language
borrowing. The last part will put forward a number of tools recently developed in

cognitive linguistics and neology. It will be shown that these approaches afford
a more global view of the phenomena under study and thus pave the way for a
serious study of borrowing.

Olivia Guérin : "Boubou : a sort of Muslim poncho" : glosses on
borrowings in travel writing and shifts in meaning

Borrowing is studied here from a discursive viewpoint, before it is incor-
porated into the language or in its initial stages of incorporation. From a corpus
of French travel writing —the genre itself being an important vehicle conveying
foreign words — an analysis is made of the way in which the writers provide access
to the many foreign words which they call upon in their writing to refer to exotic
realities. Focus is put on the glosses in which the writers reformulate the meaning
of the borrowings with the ensuing semantic shifts and the representations thereby
constructed. The main semantic processes used for this are approximation, singling
out one possible meaning of the word cited and axiologisation. These semantic
processes which take place when a word is taken from one cultural context and
placed in another may be highlighted in this way, giving a new perspective to
the phenomenon of neology by borrowing, in stressing the way that the meaning
of the borrowings are constructed just before they completely integrate into the
receptor language.

JuliePelletieretAndyVanDrom :Neoterminologyandthesociopolitical
discourse and exchange : reflections of Quebec Society.

Neologisms culled from Quebec newspapers and magazines on reported
sociopolitical writing can be profitably analysed using the theory of polyphony,
showing how neological creation, exploiting different ways of forming new terms,
is part and parcel of the development of Quebec Society. T'he neologisms studied
here will be measured against language policy in Quebec Can self-regulation
be attested in the socio-political sphere? What can be said of words used as
instruments of power in Society? The new terms used (e.g. péquiste, bloquiste,
adéquiste, plquiste) show in the first instance a lessening of political ideology
in favour of the naming of supporters of various Quebec political parties and
secondly (e.g. PPP and réingénierie) the principles of inter-domain circularity
and the self-regulatory power of socio-political words. This article is intended
as an exploratory study investigating the combined potential of polyphony and
socioterminology. It is hoped that this will stimulate the debate and further studies
on the polyphonic nature of discourse as a social practice.

Catherine Bilodeau and Benoît Leblanc :Epiterminological discourse
an indication of the acceptante rate of French terminology

T'he speed at which technological innovation takes place, particularly in
information technology, is a vexed question for language planning bodies which
are overwhelmed by the task of creating and disseminating French terminology
adapted to users' actual life and needs. There are unfortunately very few means
by which the acceptante rate of these French terms tan be measured. This study,
which is part of a larger research project, entitled Adapting French IT termino-
logy in Canada (L'aménagement de la terminologie française de l'informatique
au Canada (CRSHC-2004-2006), examines how a sample of these day-to-day
terminologies is adopted and actually used in oral exchanges through analysing the
epiterminological discourse of the subjects studied. Epiterminological discourse
is inspired by the concept of epilinguistics, i.e. the way ordinary speakers talle
about language, languages, verbal behaviour, style and sociolinguistic registers
(Laurendeau 2004). It is applied here to language for special purposes and seems
to offer significant insight into the attitude that speakers have to the terms they use
and consequently their acceptante rate. For example, does the way a speaker rate
a term indicate whether it is liable to be more generally accepted, and if so to what
extent? Our findings are drawn from the corpus mentioned above.

Achevé d'imprimer par Corlet Numérique - 14110 Condé-sur-Noireau

N° d'Imprimeur :64491 -Dépôt légal :novembre 2009 -Imprimé en France


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