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  • ISBN: 978-2-8124-0082-7
  • ISSN: 1965-2542
  • DOI: 10.15122/isbn.978-2-8124-4227-8.p.0227
  • Éditeur: Classiques Garnier
  • Date de parution: 01/03/2010
  • Périodicité: Annuelle
  • Langue: Anglais
Accès libre
Support: Numérique
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ABSTRACTS

I. Naming

John Humbley  : Terminology and naming  : a defining relation  ?

Naming is one of the main issues in terminology. The question is whether
terms are created consciously, and can thus be planned, or if, on the contrary, terms
are created as a discursive act, and thus more or less unconsciously. This question
has divided the experts ever since terminology as a discipline came of age. The
distant origins of terminology are to be found in nomenclatures and taxonomies, and
the first expressions of term theory are steeped in standardizing endeavours, thus
favouring the first hypothesis. More linguistically orientated studies however,
focusing on corpora containing emerging terminologies, stress the various acts of
language which fmish up by creating a new term. Alter a period of neglect, naming
has returned to the centre of terminologists' preoccupations, thanks to work in
cognitive terminology, and to other detailed study on scientific articles, opening the
way to a synthesis of the two viewpoints.

Paul 5iblot  : The question of naming  : from the listing of meaning to the
analysis of how narres are produced.

The term of naming (nomination in French) may look quite straightforward,
but it in fact begs many questions, some of which are quite fondamental oves, such
as categorisation in language, specificities of the noue and narre, and ambiguities in
linguistic terminology itself. The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of
naming on the theoretical level. By examining how this concept is identified in the
paradigm of synonyms (designation, appellation, denomination) and how the terms
in question are used, we obtain a series of underlying epistemological options to
choose between. Some arguments are then mustered in favour of a theory of naming
and then illustrated in the analysis of a particular praxematic case, that of casbah.
This word was borrowed in an intercultural situation marked by conflicting tensions.
We examine how it is used in French.

Dardo de Vecchi  : Keeping track of naming  : pragmaterminology in the
business world.

Businesses, which are a particular form of organisations, have constant
recourse to naming simply to narre new products and services as they position

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themselves on the market. Businesses produce new terme because they express new
needs, primarily to stand out in the market. They produce new terme which are so
many distinctive signe of their specificity. As these new terme are vital in human
resources, communication, business culture, knowledge management, the study of
how terme are used in these situations justifies setting up a specific method, which
can be called pragmaterminology.

It can be shown that the way firme conceptualize their activities with their
own particular terme distinguishes them from their competitors and are vital in the
firm's internal and external communication. These terme can change meaning
rapidly, for example within the life of a project, and need to be followed, preferably
from a sociolinguistic viewpoint. The necessity to keep track of a firm's particular
use of language is exemplified in the many on-lire glossaries put on websites, to
help the outsider decode the firm's vocabulary. This implies a parallel with the way
the term's meaning evolves and the action which are implied, and how they are
integrated into the community of the business. Firme are veritable word factoriel,
and a close watch on how words change in this context is more than ever necessary.

François Gaudin  : A naming revolution in chemistry  :forcing it through  ?

In the history of scientific vocabulary, the birth of the language of modern
chemistry represents a breakthrough. The effective change in the terminological
paradigm is determined by the efficiency it guarantees, strategies involved and the
groupe of scientiste who imposed it.

The new nomenclature is based on simple, efficient principles, including the
motivation of the narres used, the choke of Greek mots and French forme for the
terme.

An analysis of these terminological upheavals makes obvious the determining
desire to lirait the arbitrary nature of language, whereas this is the very principle of
spontaneous language.

Iéda Alves  : Naming by borrowing in Brazilian Portuguese

The aim of this study is to characterize a nuxnber of features of loan words in
contemporary Brazilian Portuguese. The examples corne not only from the written
press (newspapers and magazines) but also from a corpus of specialized and
popularized publications in the field of economics. In the general language corpus, a
systematic study of new words appearing in the printed media since 1993 shows that
coinages in the native language are far more frequent than bans. For special
languages, especially for popular economics, are often rendered by Portuguese
expressions, or followed up by a definition. In specialised texte, it can be shown that

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borrowings are well integrated as they produce derivates, though there are wrongly
formed loan translations. Other borrowings, especially from English, tend to be
replaced by indigenous expressions. Translated books tend to replace direct bans in
subsequent editions.

Jean-François 5ablayrolles  :Naming, rames and neology  : intersection and
symmetrical differences.

This article seeks to study the relationships between neology and naming
taken from the viewpoint of the act of giving a name, to be distinguished from the
word or denomination itself, which is the result of this operation, producing a stable
form.

First of all, neology and naming do rot coincide completely. The influence of
the syntactic context, desire to be identified as an insider or to achieve expressivity
can give rise to neologisms without there being any concomitant new realities to be
named. From the other point of view, naming is rot always accompanied by
neologisms : usages may be extended and meanings may be specialized in context,
and in general old signs may be used for new realities.

T'hen again, several parameters must be taken into accourt when examining
naming by neology. The factor of the degree of urgency is fondamental : does the
speaker have time to give thought to the new name or is the sentence akeady half
out ? The aim of convincing both hearer and speaker/writer of the existence of a new
reality or to express an opinion on the subject is a second parameter. Finally we
examine various cases of renaming.

Naima 5emmar-Djabelkheir  :Naming in the process of neology

This article examines the neological process at work in the act of naming. In
order to bring out what is specific to naming, we shall first draw a parallel with two
concepts which are more frequently distinguished, i.e. naming and denomination.
The demonstration will then be given using a small number of neologisms taken
from a multilingual context, i.e. the Algerian sociolinguistic environnent. By
concentrating on semantic neology in particular, and applying the theory of
praximatics to the study of how meaning is produced, we attempt to show how, in
discourse, naming by means of a praxeme (here the neologism), car give rise to new
meanings which are shared collectively within the praxic and sociocultural context.
The whole question is thus to bring out the part played by collective experiences on
language, in particular through the development of semantic neology in naming.

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II. Other articles

Bénédicte Laurent  : Trade mark, product names  :analysis of an exemplary
case of lexical creativity.

The most likely candidate for the type of proper noue most liable to be
affected by neology could well be the trade mark or the product name. As a member
of a claes presented as a special case in lexical dynamics, the trade or product name,
which ultimately aims at triggering the act of purchase, is specifically neological in
all cases. The aim here is to analyse how meaning is produced from the trade or
product name in itself and for itself, as Saussurian linguistics would have it. The
corpus used is comprised of all trade names registered in France up to 2004 at the
official body, Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle. This computer assisted
analysis brings out various models of neologisms which are invoked. This way,
different strategies can be pointed out in the lexical constructions thus created,
notably neology of meaning and neology of form, involving the creation of a new
word Creuse of existing words, creations, bans from other languages, neography).

It will be seen how visual and discursive contextualisation aims at mobilising
all this linguistically creative potential. Thus the analysis will concentrate on such
names of products as Twingo, Kangoo and Espace, which represent three different
types of neology (form and bits of bans, form and meaning, meaning by changing
from a common noue to a proper nouas).

Arnaud Richard  :Black or Noir  ? A borrowing of identity or a borrowed
identity ?

A person's skie colour is a physical characteristic used to refer to this person.
This simple observation of fact is the starting point for our study of the word black
as it is used in French. This term, which only recently appeared in French, is
examined from the points of view of discourse analysis and sociolinguistics, and at
the saure time, its mode of appearance, by borrowing, is analysed, as is the way it is
actually used in discourse (real attested usages). A brief metalexicographical study
was then carried out before analysing a corpus of seven years of the French press, to
prepare for a field survey made among high-level sports men and women. The aim
of this survey was to bring out the real language practices of the target group. The
important point was to grasp that to refer to a person implies that the speaker takes a
certain stance and expresses a viewpoint. Our attitudes, even the most trivial oves,
are coordinated by the choke of terms we use. Although both noir and black now
undeniably exist in French, the speaker should be aware of the usage attached to

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each of these words, as the respect for the other often starts by the way we refer to
him or her.

Anne-Laure Jousse  : Neology in pamphlets

Our research concerns the study of neology in pamphlets. The corpus we
worked on is mainly composed of racist and antireligious texts. Alter a brief
analysis of the creativity in pamphlets, we focus on lexical creativity i.e. neology.
We set out a typology from a morphological and semantical point of view. Then we
will look at the roles and fonctions of neologisms in the particular rhetoric of
pamphlets.

Céline Ahronian Terminology and translation  : constructing a system of
equivalence types

This research was carried out in a view to helping translators and creating
neologisms. The aim is to study the structure of compound words in English in the
field of the Internet extracted from a corpus and comparing these with attested
French equivalents in order to work out a method to translate into French future
compounds of this sort. The system is computer based to insure efficiency and
incorporation into the translator's working environment, and takes the form of a
bilingual term base generating subject-specific neology.

Article de revue: Précédent 20/20